Joseph Henry Brooks

Joseph Henry Brooks, ca. 1865, Muscogee County, Georgia, Confederate States of America

Nat Geo 2.0 Test - Summary

Overview of Nat Geo 2.0 test

The Nat Geo 2.0 test contains three major tests that are combined together: 1) extensive Y-SNP testing that show your deep ancestry origins for your male line, 2) extensive mtDNA testing that show your deep ancestry origins for your female line and 3) special atDNA AIM markers that provide geographical origins of your overall ancestry. This test is currently only available through National Geographic Society but the actual test is processed in the FTDNA labs. This test should be considered a deep ancestral test primarily but Y-SNPs have significant genealogical implications as well. The test costs $199.95. Since the bulk of the test reveals Y-SNPs, it is highly recommended that only male donors be tested, otherwise, all the Y-SNPs will come back with no results (since females have no Y-DNA). This test is a static test that will not discover any new Y-SNP mutations or mtDNA mutations. However, many of the Y-SNPs chosen are not well researched and could reveal new Y-SNPs that are not part of the current Y-DNA haplotrees. The primary purpose of this overview is primarily Y-SNP oriented as that is the part of the test that this web site addresses.

Overview of Y-SNPs tested

The Y-SNP portion of the Nat Geo 2.0 test replaces the FTDNA "deep clade" test since many more Y-SNPs are tested at about the same cost. This test includes Y-SNPs that have qualified for ISOGG haplotree up to November, 2011 when the static test chip went into production. Under R-L21, the deep clade test tested only ten Y-SNPs that included on the ISOGG haplotree. Additionally, M37 has never tested positive in any deep clade test and has been removed from the ISOGG haplotree. L69 was removed from the ISOGG haplotree since was found to be an unstable Y-SNP and L159 will probably be removed in the near future as being unstable as well. L69 and L159 are useful for genealogical research but do not meet the stability requirements for deep ancestry research. Under R-L21, the new Nat Geo 2.0 test has at least thirty-eight R-L21 Y-SNPs. This includes the private Y-SNP M37 but does not include the unstable Y-SNPs L69 or L159. The Nat Geo 2.0 test also does not include L193 (which was part of the deep clade test) and does not include L362 which was added to the ISOGG haplotree in March, 2011.

If you have eastern Asian or Sardinian ancestry, the Nat Geo 2.0 has added thousands of new Y-SNPs that were discovered in two major geographic academic studies. There are 3,010 Y-SNPs from an eastern Asian study and 4,063 Y-SNPs from the Sardinian study. The most interesting Y-SNPs for R-L21 would be another 3,325 Y-SNPs that come primarily from the 1,000 Genomes Project where a lot of the older and broader R-L21 Y-SNPs have been discovered. Of course, the vast majority of these Y-SNPs will be duplicate Y-SNPs or new Y-SNPs that are very old. The approximate cutoff was November, 2011 for inclusion on the Nat Geo 2.0 chip appears to be very accurate for older and broader Y-SNPs but less accurate for private and duplicate Y-SNPs.

SNPs listed a CTS refer to Chris Taylor Smith who primarily works with 1000 Genomes data which is primarily European SNPs. These will be the primary source for new R-L21 Y-SNPs since R-L21 has European ancestry. SNPs listed as PF are from Paulo Francalacci which are the Sardinian SNPs. Some of these Y-SNPs could be useful for broader European research - specially around the Mediterranean Sea. SNPs listed as F are probably eastern Asian SNPs researched by Li Jin. Unless you are researching Asian ancestors, these Y-SNPs will probably have limited applicability for researchers of R-L21 ancestors. Also included are 570 L SNPs (primarily from FTDNA Walk the Y testing), 562 Z SNPs (from 1000 Genomes research), 273 M SNPs (Stanford University), 205 P SNPs (University of Arizona), 187 YSC SNPs (FTDNA beta testing using the Roche 454 scanner - stands for Y-SNP Candidate), 131 V SNPs (La Sapienza of Rome, Italy), 60 PAGES SNPs (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), 18 U SNPs (University of Central Florida) and 23 SNPs from numerous sources.

Below is a spreadsheet that includes the 38 of the 80 known R-L21 Y-SNPs:

Nat Geo 2.0 Y-SNPs for R-L21